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Pedro Figueredo y Cisneros (Bayamo, 1819-1870)

Lawyer and literature and music amateur. He has the honour to be the creator of the National Anthem of Cuba, artistic expression where the feeling of love to the motherland together the decission of combat come across with the decission of combat, in which the people stands and conquer its whole identity, the Liberation War.

Pedro Figueredo y Cisneros was born in July 29th, 1819 in a wealthy Bayamo Family. He made his earliest studies in the Santo Domingo Convent at his hometown. He studied together with Carlos Manuel and Céspedes y Francisco Vicente Aguilera, among others. He kept his studies in Havana and later in Spain. He graduated in Laws, again he went to Spain and travel along several European countries.

Together with Carlos Manuel de Céspedes he founded, "La Filarmónica", in 1851. It was a great cultural centre in Bayamo and place of meeting of illustrious personalities such as Juan Clemente Zenea, José Fornaris, José Joaquín Palma, José María Izaguirre and many others. In these meetings, singing, declamation, and staging of theatre plays, stating cubanship and hate to Spanish colonialism, took place.

Since 1852 he was put under surveillance under suspicions of being unfaithful to the Spanish Government. In 1854 he is forced to reside in Havana..

In 1857, together with José Quintín Suzarte and Domingo Guillermo de Arozarena he published several works in the newspaper El Correo de la Tarde and in the siboneyista magazine La Piragua. Some of them, Excursión a la gran sabana de Yara and La Piragua (counterdance). He wrote some articles on Cuban daily customs. He wqas mason in the Redención Lodge, presided by Francisco Aguilera. He returned to Bayamo in 1858.

In 1861 he is sentenced to 14 months of house arrest, making good use of this time studying Military Tactics. His home became conspirative centre and venue of the Comité Revolucionario de Bayamo (Bayamo Revolutionary Committee).

“Perucho” Figueredo composed “La Bayamesa” on the dawn of August 14th, 1867 It was the war chant that would lead the rebel forces in Bayamo, and that very night he himself played it on the piano when constituting the Comité Revolucionario de Bayamo. In June 11th, 1868, “La Bayamesa” was played during Corpus Christi religious celebrations at the Iglesia San Salvador de Bayamo Church. It was conducted by master builder (construction foreman).and orchestra conductor Manuel Muñoz Cedeño. Shortly afterwards it was on the city streets with the procession.

In October 10th, 1868, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes uprose in La Demajagua sugarmill and Figueredo decided to follow him, joining the Liberator Army, where he became General.

In October 20th, 1868, when Bayamo City was seized, the people asked Perucho the lyrics of that well-known music, and everybody began singing.

Pedro Figueredo was made prisoner, sick of typhus, when some rebel families were pursued by Spanish troops, his among them, in August 11th, 1870.

So, it was executed together with Rodrigo and Ignacio Tamayo, guilty of being “unfaithful” to the country, in August 17th, 1870, the man, whose last words were: ¡To die for our motherland is to live!

Monument to Perucho Figueredo

Monument to Perucho Figueredo
i n Céspedes' Park , Bayamo
 
Back sight of the monument

Back sight of the monument  
Plates of the monument    
   
Plates of the monument